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The German Army as part of the Bundeswehr in addition to Air Force and Navy not only the oldest but also the largest organized sector of the armed forces. On 11 January 1956 was issued the “Basic Instruction No. 1 for the preparation of the German army.”

Nine days earlier, the first 1,000 volunteers had been called as a future army soldiers to Andernach. Since this birth, the army grew rapidly in the decades that followed. Mid-80s, the time of the climax of the Cold War, should grow the army to mobilize about 450,000 men. presented by the end of East-West conflict and the changing security environment, the army new challenges, which also needs-based structure demanded. After completion of the current restructuring and reorganization will consist of 83 000 active-duty soldiers to the army.

The Bundeswehr is divided into a military part (armed forces or Streitkräfte) and a civil part with the armed forces administration (Wehrverwaltung), the federal bureau of procurement (Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung) and the federal bureau for information management and information technology of the Bundeswehr (Bundesamt für Informationsmanagement und Informationstechnik der Bundeswehr, sometimes abbreviated as IT-AmtBw). The military part of the federal defense force consists of Army (Heer), Navy (Marine), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis), and Central Medical Services (Zentraler Sanitätsdienst) branches.

The Bundeswehr has 200,500 professional soldiers, 55,000 18–25-year-old conscripts who serve for at least nine months under current laws, and 2,500 active reservists at any given time. The number of civilian employees is to be reduced to 75,000 during the coming years. The reserve consists of a “reinforcement reserve” of 55,000 scheduled reservists and an “operative reserve” of roughly 300,000 personnel. They participate in reserve drills as well as abroad deployments.

Women have served in the medical service since 1975. From 1993 to 2000, they were also allowed to serve as enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officers in the medical service and the army bands. In 2000, in a lawsuit brought up by Tanja Kreil, the European Court of Justice issued a ruling allowing women to serve in more roles than previously allowed. Since 2001 they can serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently around 14,500 women on active duty and a number of female reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping missions and other operations. In 1994, Verena von Weymarn became Generalarzt der Luftwaffe (“Surgeon General of the Air Force”), the first woman ever to reach the rank of general in the armed forces of Germany. In 2006 Erika Franke became the second.