In 1999, Al-Qaeda leadership in Kandahar, which was finally approved known as the attacks of 11 September. The ambitious plot involved targets in deliberately breaking hijacked planes in the U.S. Bin Laden personally selected two future hijackers, who had fought on behalf of the Taliban to attend a special training at Mes Aynak camp.
Later that year, four members of what became known as the Hamburg cell pilot hijackers in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where they met with Al Qaeda leader for the first time awarded and receive training arrived on the site. Another hijacker pilots arrived at the al Faruq camp in 2000 and was selected to participate also. Thirteen “muscle hijackers” were chosen by bin Laden of al-Qaida training camps from 2000 to early 2001. In July of 2001, all the hijackers arrived in the U.S.
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11th September 2001 almost 3,000 were in the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that killed civilian aircraft hijacked. Another hijacked plane crashed in a field after the passengers and crew tried to take control of the aircraft. The attacks were quickly linked to Al Qaeda and bin Laden. Less than a week after 11 September 2001, pointed to U.S. President George W. Bush Osama Bin Laden as a”prime suspect’in the attacks. Osama bin Laden had been understood to be in Afghanistan at the time. 20 September 2001, in a speech before a joint session of Congress, presented an ultimatum to President Bush demanding that the Taliban government in Afghanistan:
Afghan government responded through their embassy in Pakistan that the U.S. submitted by the government of Afghanistan is no evidence linking Bin Laden to the attacks of 11 September and the Afghan government had no information about itself. The Afghan government also stressed that bin Laden was a guest in their country. Pashtun Taliban and codes of conduct require that guests be granted hospitality and asylum. Before the start of military hostilities, July 10 2001 the Taliban offered to try bin Laden in Afghanistan in an Islamic court. This offer was rejected by the U.S. and the bombing of targets in Afghanistan by U.S. forces and Britain began the same day. October 14, 2001, seven days to the U.S. / British bombing, the Taliban offered to hand over bin Laden to a third country for trial if the bombing stopped and showed them proof of their involvement in the terrorist attacks of 11 September. This offer was also rejected by Bush, who declared that”There’s no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he’s guilty. ”
The war in Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001, the U.S. Military Operation Enduring Freedom, launched in conjunction with the British Army, in response to September 11, 2001 against the United States. The United Kingdom, since 2002, led his own military operation, Operation Herrick, as part of the same war in Afghanistan. The nature of warfare has evolved from a violent struggle against Al Qaeda and its Taliban supporters in a complex counterinsurgency effort.
The first phase of the war was the result of the attacks of September 11, 2001 when the U.S. launched Operation Enduring Freedom to remove a refuge for Al Qaeda and its use of Afghan territory as a base for terrorist activities. In this first phase involved the U.S. and coalition forces, the forces of the Afghan opposition Northern Alliance, toppled the Taliban before. The following Karzai government, has changed the character of the war to an effort to quell the rebellion, where insurgents have chosen not to confront directly the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops, but mixed with the local population and are used mainly improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide bombings.
The stated aim of the invasion it was Osama bin Laden and other senior Al Qaeda members are available to be put to the test in order to destroy the Al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime has supported and that a safe haven . The Bush administration said the policy would not distinguish between terrorist organizations and nations or governments that distinguish them housed. UN was not the US-led invasion of Afghanistan approved.
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Another operation is the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), which the UN Security Council in late December 2001 established to secure Kabul and its surroundings. NATO took control of ISAF in 2003. With 23 July 2009 had about 64 500 ISAF soldiers from 42 countries, with NATO members, the core of the force. NATO’s involvement is particularly important for the United States because it gives international legitimacy to the war. The United States has about 29,950 soldiers in ISAF.
U.S. and Britain led the air campaign in support of ground forces supplied primarily by the Afghan Northern Alliance. In 2002, committed American, British and Canadian infantry, along with special forces from several allied countries, including Australia. Later, NATO forces have been included.
The first attack by the Taliban removed from power, but Taliban have regained strength since. Since 2006, Afghanistan has seen threats to the stability of their increased Taliban-led insurgent activity, record levels of illicit drug production, and a fragile government with limited control outside Kabul. Taliban can hold indefinitely, after the first December 2009 briefing of the top U.S. intelligence officer in Afghanistan.
The first in December 2009, announced the U.S. president Barack Obama that he would only escalate U.S. military involvement by inserting an extra 30,000 soldiers within six months. He also proposed to begin the withdrawal of troops 18 months from that date. The next day, the U.S. commander in Afghanistan, General Stanley A. McChrystal warned that the timeline is flexible and “not absolute” and Defense Secretary Robert Gates, when asked by a member of Committee Services Senate Armed whether any soldier might be withdrawn in July 2011, he said,”The president, as commander, has always been able to adjust their decisions. ”
January 26, 2010, the International Conference on Afghanistan in London, amounting to some 70 countries and organizations, Afghan President Hamid Karzai told world leaders that he intended to achieve the highest positions of the Taliban in weeks with a peace initiative. Karzai sets out the framework for dialogue with Taliban leaders when he urged the group’s leadership to participate in a “Loya Jirga”or large collection of old peace talks-opening.
Legal Basis for the war
The United Nations Charter, which has been ratified by the United States and other members of the invading coalition has acceded, provides that all UN member states must settle their international disputes by peaceful means, and any member nation can use the military force except in self defense. U.S. Constitution provides that international treaties such as the United Nations Charter that are ratified by the U.S. is a part of the supreme law of the country in the United States The Security Council has not authorized the UN-led military campaign in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom).
Proponents of the legitimacy of the US-led invasion argued that the adoption of UN Security Council was necessary because the invasion was an act of collective self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter and therefore was not a war of aggression . Critics argue that the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan was not legitimate self-defense under Article 51 of the Charter, from 9.11 attacks were not “armed attacks” by another state, but were committed by groups of individuals or non-state actors. Moreover, even if a state has committed to 11.9 attacks, no imminent threat of an armed attack against the U.S. existed after September 11, or the U.S. would not have waited three weeks before they start bombing campaign against Afghanistan : the need for self-defense must be “instant, overwhelming and leaving no choice of means and no moment for deliberation.”
The Bush administration, meanwhile, does not declare war, Taliban troops and labeled as supporters of terrorists rather than soldiers, denying them the protections of the Geneva Convention and due process. This position is successfully challenged in U.S. Supreme Court and questioned even by military lawyers responsible for prosecuting prisoners beat. December 20, 2001, the Security Council authorize the establishment of a Force of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) with authority to take all necessary measures to fulfill its mandate to assist the Afghan Interim Authority in maintaining security. He passed the command of ISAF to NATO in August 11, 2003.
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